We use our own and third-party cookies to improve browsing and provide content of interest.

In continuing we understand that you accept our Cookies Policy. You can modify the cookies storage options in your browser. Learn more

I understand

Success story: Doña Carmen Project, 40 MW of clean energy

The assembly work of the Doña Carmen Solar Energy project was completed last May" in the city of La Ligua, to the far north of the 5th region of Valparaíso, Chile.

A solar photovoltaic plant (PV) has been developed, which will generate 40 MW of renewable energy, supplying the equivalent to the energy needed for 21,600 homes from a clean source of energy. The plant will prevent the emission of an equivalent to 22,490 tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Energía Cerro El Morado S.A. hired Solarcentury, a company specialising in the design of photovoltaic systems, for the development and construction of the solar farm. Solarcentury works as an EPC Contractor and is responsible for providing all engineering, procurement and construction services.

Read more +

MYeBOX®. More than a portable

MYeBOX® is an innovative portable network and power quality analyser, which has been specially designed to perform energy audits. The unit features a Wi-Fi and 3G communication system (depending on the model) and can be configured and monitored remotely with a Smartphone or Tablet, without the need to be present at the facility.

Simplicity

MYeBOX® is an innovative portable network and power quality analyser, which has been specially designed to perform energy audits. The unit features a Wi-Fi and 3G communication system (depending on the model) and can be configured and monitored remotely with a Smartphone or Tablet, without the need to be present at the facility.

Full Control

With MYeBOX®, it takes a matter of seconds to check any aspect of the system. Also, the device sends alerts by email, relating to any parameter that is critical for the energy efficiency or proper operation of the system (reactive energy, maximeter power, overcurrent, voltage fault, etc.)

Connection

In this age of information, we receive large amounts of real-time information. Using Wi-Fi and 3G communications, MYeBOX® allows you to fully configure the analyser and view all of the data remotely, from anywhere and at any time.

Savings

A system designed for saving: Time, Money and Energy. It speeds up installation time and the analysis of measurements. You can complete a measurement remotely, send it to MYeBOX® Cloud and prepare the relevant report without needing to go anywhere to uninstall the unit.

MYeBOX® features an internal memory and a new built-in remote data storage system, allowing any user to access the data from a free server in the "MYeBOX® Cloud".

Almacenamiento de datos con MYeBOX®

The unit can select the registration period of each variable independently for more complex studies, offering a high measuring versatility.

Energy audits are a very simple task, thanks to the connectivity features and versatility of the MYeBOX® analyser.

Features of the unit
  • Wi-Fi / 3G Communications (depending on the model)
  • FREE management and control App (Android and iOS)
  • Measurement of the main power quality and electrical parameters
  • 4 or 5 voltage and current measuring inputs (depending on the model)
  • Quality events in voltage according to EN 50160
  • Recording of the transients / wave shape
  • Class A, according to IEC 61000-4-30
  • 2 transistor inputs and 2 transistor outputs (depending on the model)
  • Sending of alarms via e-mail
  • Analysis of logs with the FREE PowerVision Plus software

Now, by purchasing your MYeBOX®, get a free tablet and have full access to the information, wherever you are.

Portal MYeBOX®

Review

Tutorial

For more information, please do not hesitate to go to our MYeBOX® Portal:

www.myebox.es

Portal MYeBOX®

 

More info: MYeBOX®. Portable Network analyzer.

Harmonics: Today’s problems and its solution

 

The most versatile solution for power quality problems

Introduction

Domestic and industrial loads contain increasing numbers of electronic circuits that are supplied with currents that are not purely sinusoidal. For example, engines increasingly use frequency regulation, which requires converting alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) and then DC back to AC. Given that the supply is normally in AC, this requires increasing use of electronic power converters (rectifiers, inverters, etc.) for these DC-AC and AC-DC transformations. The same thing happens with common loads like computers, LED and discharge lighting, lifts, etc.

This means that the electrical network must supply a large number of charges that rectify the current, distorting the wave shape of the current being consumed so that it is not a purely sinusoidal wave but rather a superposition of sinusoidal waves with frequencies that are multiples of the network frequency (harmonics). Figures 1 and 2 show the typical consumptions of one network with single-phase rectifiers and one with three-phase rectifiers. This type of current is most abundant in installations like offices, shopping centres, hospitals, etc., and it is formed by a 50 or 60 Hz component (network fundamental frequency) and a set of different percentages of components with multiple frequencies. These percentages may be measured using a harmonics analyzer, which can also measure the total distortion rate, or THD, which gives the ratio between the effective value of the ripple and the effective value of the fundamental component.

Fig. 1 - Typical wave shapes of distorted networks

The result of non-sinusoidal consumption is that the voltage also suffers some distortion due to the voltage drops in the impedances of lines and transformers. In the logs we can note a slight voltage distortion in the single-phase network (low THD) and a stronger distortion in the three-phase example. In both cases the current shape differs greatly from the sinusoidal current, and the THD values are higher.

To regulate this issue and limit the voltage distortion levels at connection points to public networks, there are international standards that establish harmonic emission limits for units and systems connected to the network (Table 1). The most significant are those associated with compatibility levels.

AFQevo

Table 1 - International standards on harmonic emission limits

 

Some key concepts regarding harmonics

We can better understand harmonics problems by looking at some basic concepts which have been published in several articles and books, and which are summarised below:

  • The origin of harmonics problems are receivers that consume distorted currents (called "non-linear" receivers).
  • The problem spreading to other users connected to the same network depends on the impedance of the network, which depends on the distribution company. This impedance is not usually direct, but can be calculated from the short-circuit power available (the more short-circuit power, the less impedance).
  • Users have a section of the distribution lines before they reach the final load. Thus, the problems that may arise at the mains connection of their installation may be attributed to a lack of short-circuit power, but in many cases, the problems that may arise at points farther down the line from the mains connection are often due to impedances in the installation itself.
  • Furthermore, in terms of distortions farther down the line from the mains connection, we must remember that line impedance has a very significant inductive component. Therefore, many times it is not a question of using distribution cables with larger cross-sections, but of limiting inductance per metre of cables. This is achieved by braiding and twisting the distribution cables (often rejected by installations due to aesthetics).
  • The problem of voltage distortion at the PCC point can be aggravated due to of resonances between the power factor compensation capacitors and the inductance of the distribution lines (transformers and lines).
  • Corrective measures (filters) must be installed as close as possible to the loads that are generating harmonics.

In short, the solution to the harmonics problem is two-pronged: On the one hand, users must limit the number of harmonic currents generated by their receivers and must try to distribute electricity in their plants with low impedance per metre of cable. On the other hand, the distribution company must ensure minimal short-circuit power and must ensure that users do not exceed certain distortion limits, so as not to cause harm to their neighbours sharing the network.

When the harmonic levels generated by receivers are not permitted for the distribution system supplying them, corrective filters must be installed. In this article we are going to focus on explaining the concept of filtering.

 

Compatibility limits due to harmonics

The presence of harmonics in a network has several consequences. The most significant are described below.

  • Deterioration of the voltage wave quality, affecting sensitive receivers.
  • Overloading and possible parallel resonance between the line inductance and the power factor (PF) compensation capacitors.
  • Worsening of the power factor. The network power supply capacity is therefore diminished, due to being oversized.
  • Overloading of cables and especially transformers (very sharp increases in iron losses).
  • Problems of unwanted tripping of protection devices.

To avoid these issues, there are standards that establish a minimum power quality which limits the maximum distortion levels for the voltage wave supplied at the connection point to the public network (PCC). These limits are called compatibility limits. Table 2 presents a summary of these limits for harmonics in industrial LV networks. The different classes mentioned in this table correspond to:

  • Class 1: Industrial environment intended for power supply to sensitive electronic units
  • Class 2: Normal industrial environment. Usual limits for public networks
  • Class 3: Deteriorated industrial environment (generally due to the presence of transducers). Not suitable for power supply to sensitive units.

AFQevo. Multifunction Active Filter

Table 2 - Compatibility limits: Voltage harmonics (Un %) in industrial LV networks (IEC-61000-2-4)

Voltage harmonics are due to the voltage drop produced by current harmonics on distribution line impedances. This is illustrated in Fig. 2. So, reaching these limits depends on two factors:

  1. Emission level of the receivers: The more emissions, the more distortion caused by the voltage drop produced by harmonic currents in the network
  2. Network impedance: The more impedance, the larger voltage drop for the same emission value of the receivers

 

Table 3 - Emission limits for Sunit 33 x Scc (EN-IEC-61000-3-4)

Table 3 gives the emission limits for low voltage networks established by the EN-IEC-61000-3-4 standard for mains connection at which the installed power in the disturbing elements does not exceed (33xScc), where Scc is the short-circuit power corresponding to the mains connection (Proportional share of the total short-circuit power of the contracted power).

 

Fig.2 - Single-line diagram showing the deterioration of the voltage wave due to non-linear loads

 

Which installations need active filters?

Some of the disturbances mentioned above can be mitigated and corrected through filters. Active filters are the perfect solution for installations with a large number of single-phase and three-phase loads that generate harmonics and that have different consumption regimens.

Active filters are units based on transducers that modulate the PWM pulse width. There are two kinds: Serial filters and parallel filters. Parallel filters are often used to comply with the IEC-61000-3.4 and IEEE-519 standards, as they are based on using an inverter to inject the harmonics consumed by the load into the network in anti-phase. Fig. 3 illustrates this operating principle, showing the load, filter and network currents. We can see that the sum of ILOAD + IFILTER gives us a sinusoidal INETWORK current. Fig. 4 shows a parallel active filter and its schematic diagram.

Airports and infrastructures - Automotive Industries - Large supermarkets and shopping centers - Paper industries

Fig. 3 - Operating principle of a parallel active filter

 

The solution

Filtering units have been adding complementary functions to adapt to changes in installations, whether they be expansions or changes to the machinery. This may require more filtering of specific harmonics or phase balancing. It can also be useful to have power factor correction in these units.

"User-friendly with
touch screen display"

 

As a solution to the mentioned problems, CIRCUTOR has developed the new AFQevo Active Filter. Its new design offers advantages such as:

  • Filtering capacity for 30 A currents per phase and 90 A of neutral.
  • If more filtering capabilities are required, the system can be extended with up to 100 AFQevo active filters connected in parallel.
  • Reduced metallic enclosure for wall assembly. Its compact dimensions make it easy to install.
  • Communications for better electric energy management of the installation.
  • Voltage and frequency multi-range (50/60 Hz).
  • Reduction of harmonic currents up to the 50th harmonic (2500 Hz).
  • Selectable filtering of harmonic frequencies to achieve higher filtering efficacy.
  • Power factor correction (inductive/capacitive).
  • Phase current balancing. In the 4W model, it helps to reduce consumption in neutral.

The importance of a good installation

To get the best results, it is useful to have filters like AFQevo that are easy to install and manage. Start-up is made easier with the following functions:

  • 3-step start-up: Connect, Set up and Start
  • Touch screen display for quick management
  • Alarms such as configuration error, polarity, temperatures, resonance, voltages, overload, contactors, DC bus, etc.
 

"Energy management improvement"

AFQevo. CONNECT - SET UP - BOOT UP

Multipurpose: Various configurations and priorities

AFQevo active filters are Very versatile because they allow Different configurations and modes Of operation. Everything for To use them in installations Of different types and in the most Different situations.

Multipurpose: Various configurations and priorities

Application type with Active Filters Multifunction AFQevo in header and next to the load.

 

Conclusions

The presence of harmonics in distribution lines is increasing, causing a set of problems related to deteriorating voltage wave quality. This forces oversize installations, causing significant additional losses. Despite existing standards that limit the consumption of these harmonics, it is useful to filter them as it lets you optimise cable sections and powers to MV substations, reduce losses in installations and avoid production losses.

The solution to the problem is a rational and comprehensive design of harmonic filters (see related article about sizing the right active filter), like active filters, which helps solve the problem with affordable costs easily offset by savings in losses, improves the life of some of the components in installations and optimises their distribution infrastructure (cable conduits, transformers, etc.).

 

Click here to download this document in PDF format pdf es  en  fr  de  pl  pt  

 

Contact us:
t. (+34) 93 745 29 00
 

 


You can read our news in the news section.
You can also follow our publications on CIRCUTOR's Twitter account, and on LinkedIn.

New range of static capacitor banks

The change in the types of loads in facilities is making it necessary to further develop the traditional concept of power factor correction.

Outstanding performance affordable to all

If you were to think about the first step to take to improve energy efficiency in your facility, one of the first, most common actions would be power factor correction. Mainly due to the new requirements and technologies that have emerged over the years, the continuous development of compensation techniques is now a reality.

The most common system, used since the beginning, was power factor correction through contactor switching, which is still a suitable method in facilities where the load curve is the same in all phases (balanced system) and variations in consumption are not very quick (variations greater than 20 seconds). However, over the years, as the technology has developed, wi th dynamic loads becoming increasingly prevalent, systems have become more unbalanced, with far quicker variations in consumption.

As a result, a new technique emerged: the use of static contactors (solid-state relays or thyristors) to operate the capacitors in a capacitor bank. This concept of compensation offers us a number of significant advantages over compensation through contactor switching, including:

Advantages of the new range:
  • Faster response speed: using static contactors (thyristors) is the best solution for power factor correction in facilities where load variations are highly fluctuating and fast (in the order of ms). Application examples include: welding units, lifts, freight elevators, compressors, cranes, etc.
  • No mechanical wear: as an electromechanical component, the contactor has a limited mechanical working life, meaning that regular maintenance has to be performed to ensure the proper operation of the unit. However, using thyristors makes this unnecessary, increasing the useful life of the capacitor bank and optimising maintenance costs.
  • Noise reduction: using contactors requires mechanical components to be activated, which increase the noise and may become an annoyance in facilities used for services, etc. However, with thyristors, these noises disappear.
  • Elimination of transients during connection: by using zero switching control boards, we ensure that there are no transients when the capacitor bank is connected, thus extending its useful life and eliminating any disturbances in the electrical network.

New static compensation system

  • Faster response speed
  • No mechanical wear
  • Noise reduction
  • Elimination of transients during connection

The change in the types of loads in facilities is making it necessary to further develop the traditional concept of power factor correction. Circutor, a pioneer in static capacitor banks, has developed the compensation system that uses thyristors, managing to bring down the cost of static capacitor banks with filters to the level of traditional compensation systems that use contactors.


In the early days, the high cost of this technology was a problem for companies, as investing in a static capacitor bank required extremely long repayment periods, and this cost was often difficult to justify, especially when compared to a capacitor bank with contactors.

In recent times, CIRCUTOR, a pioneer in the development of the technology used in static capacitor banks for over 20 years, has adapted the new technologies that have emerged to this compensation technique, developing a new range of static capacitor banks that are similar in price to compensation systems that use contactors in its R&D+i depar tment, thus eliminating the cost issue involved in choosing a static capacitor bank as a compensation method.

Therefore , CIRCUTOR has launched a new range of static capacitor banks, EMS-C, EMK, OPTIM FRE (with detuned filters), with a new compensation system with thyristor operation that is suitable for industrial applications such as arc welding, compressor start-up, cranes and hoists, and also the services sector, such as compensating lifts in communities of residents, due to its quick load input and output rate.

Thanks to the reduced costs of the new ranges of static capacitor banks and their more advanced technology, we have made them a real, cost-effective option for any type of facility.

New static compensation systemThe new static compensation system, suitable both for industrial applications and the services sector, such as compensating lifts in communities of residents, due to its quick load input and output rate.

The new static compensation system, suitable both for industrial applications and the services sector, such as compensating lifts in communities of residents, due to its quick load input and output rate. 

 

Click here to download this document in PDF format pdf es  en  fr  de  pl  pt  

 

Everything you need to know about energy audits

 

Introduction

With the goal to stop climate change. The member states of the European Union formalized a commitment to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. This commitment is named Europe 2020. Sets those following 3 targets:

         
20%   20%   20%
Decrease in
energy
consumption
  Decrease in
greenhouse gas
emissions
  Increase in the
use of renewable energies

Read more +

CIRCUTOR solutions certified according to the UNE217001-IN standard for 0 grid injection

The CDP product family (CDP-0, CDP-G and CDP-DUO) and the CirPower Hybrid 4k-48 have been certified according to the UNE217001-IN standard, which stipulates that controllers designed to prevent injection to the grid must be capable of regulating the output power of the inverters in less than 2 seconds.

This distinction is yet another step in CIRCUTOR's commitment to providing technical solutions and it recognises the excellence of its products, whose controllers are the first to receive this certification through an accredited body such as CERES. This consolidates CIRCUTOR's position as a leader in the field of 0 injection in Spain, where it is the only company to date to have obtained this certification for its products that prevent injection into the grid.

In recent years, CIRCUTOR has gradually introduced a number of solutions that ensure the control and efficiency of self-consumption installations, tailored to the needs of each type of installation. The first system to be launched was the dynamic power controller (CDP-0) that prevented injection to the grid and made it far easier to obtain legal authorisation for self-consumption installations.

Then the dynamic power controller with demand management (CDP-G) was launched, optimising the production of self-consumption installations and managing non-critical loads to use the surplus energy from PV energy installations. CIRCUTOR's latest innovation comes in the form of the dynamic power controller with dual configuration of injection to grid parameters (CDP-DUO), capable of automatically switching the injection parameters according to the type of grid present (grid-diesel generator set). All of the aforementioned controllers have obtained the UNE217001-IN certification.

As well as certifying its controllers, CIRCUTOR wanted to go one step further and has also certified the first grid-tie hybrid inverter capable of meeting the standard's most stringent requirements. This certification makes the CirPower Hybrid 4k-48 a unique inverter in its class.

circutor32x32

Contact

CIRCUTOR, SA
Vial Sant Jordi s/n, 08232
Viladecavalls (Barcelona) Spain
Tel: (+34) 93 745 29 00
Fax (+34) 93 745 29 14

SATTechnical Support
(+34) 93 745 29 19

© 2015 circutor.com. All rights reserved.